Fill The Frame
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This is one of the “rules” of photography that needs explanation. There are several reasons to fill the frame, among them the fact that your camera’s sensor is designed to be used to its fullest extent and that cropping significantly leads to image degradation. Filling the frame means more detail and better definition of your subject.
Like most photography rules in my experience this one needs a few caveats.
As most of us cannot afford 600mm lens we crop.
You need to be able to crop your picture to fit the aspect ratio of its eventual home be that a digital copy on your website, a physical frame or a magazine lay-out.
Full frame should not mean you emphasize your subject at the expense of context and information your audience needs to understand your subject.
It does not mean overwhelming the viewer or center everything to the detriment of good composition.
This is not to say you cannot fill the frame completely with a subject and that there are not great photographs that have filled the frame completely, just that there may be other concerns you need to consider in framing. Like almost everyone I know I crop heavily trying hard to avoid image degradation issues.
So the next time a pro tells you to fill the frame, what he/she probably means is make your subject bigger, get closer, and not literally fill the frame.